The major role of the law is to safeguard social cohesion, and to ensure people live together in peace and harmony. In reality, social cohesion will be in effect when people become familiar with and acknowledge the authority and right of the law. There are various economic, social, political and cultural changes that led to change or formation of laws. However, there are unprecedented legal cases that completely changed some laws.
1. Lee Johnson Case (1989):
After Gregory Lee Johnson destroyed an American flag by fire in a protest, a Supreme Court negated the decision that condemned Gregory Lee Johnson of violating a venerated object. The court pronounced that there was no penalty on Lee Johnson since he was protected by freedom of speech in the first amendment bill.
2. Gibbons and Ogden Dispute over New York Waters (1824):
After federal government was given additional power, Aaron Ogden was exclusively permitted by New York State to sail across the waters from New York to some New Jersey ports. When Ogden registered a complaint against Gibbons for navigating steamships in his waters, the ruling from the Supreme Court rejected Ogden’s appeal.
3. Marbury and Madison Clash over Judicial Appointment (1803):
When James Madison who served as US Secretary of State in early 19th Century made an attempt to stop the Federal partisans from being given judicial positions, William Marbury who was an appointee of John Adams, the former president of United States sued him. The court decided that nobody had an authority to enforce the appointment of Judicial Personnel regardless of their position. The case led to the establishment of Judicial and Executive boundaries.
4. Obama care act (2012):
The Supreme Court endorsed most of the Obama administration’s affordable health care law in 2012. The ruling ascertained how American citizens will receive affordable health care.
5. President Nixon and Watergate Scandal (1974):
When Richard Nixon requested for an executive concession over taped conversation concerning the Watergate scandal, the ruling delivered a verdict that he had to hand in the tapes. Furthermore, the Supreme Court set a precedent reducing the power of head of states in United States.
6. Roe’s Appeal against Abortion Act (1973):
Jane Roe sued Henry Wade who was the District Attorney in Dallas County over an act that illegalized abortion unless during misfortunes on the mother’s health or when her life is in danger. As a result, the court come to an agreement with Roe’s appeal and amended all laws that illegalized abortion in the first three months.
7. Miranda Rights against Self-incrimination (1966):
Ernesto Miranda admitted to an offense without being informed on his right against self-accusation. His attorney maintained that the concession should have been prohibited, and the ruling concurred with the attorney’s assertion. This led to the establishment of “Miranda rights” which has been in effect up to date.
8. Perry case on Same-sex Marriage (2013):
The Supreme Court rejected the California’s Proposition appeal on prohibiting same-sex marriage. This ruling completely legalized same-sex marriage in California and allowed it to resume. However, it changed the legal policies of other states in America banning same-sex marriage.
9. Fred Korematsu Case (1944):
After claiming to be a Mexican-American during Second World War, Fred Korematsu was arrested after the police realized that he was a Japanese- American who tried to avoid an incarceration camp during Second World War. However, he was later released because individual rights were not given much priority like the need to safeguard the country during world war.